Breast cancer can occur in women and rarely in men. Symptoms of breast cancer include a lump in the breast, bloody discharge from the nipple and changes in the shape or texture of the nipple or breast. Its treatment depends on the stage of cancer. It may consist of chemotherapy, radiation, hormone therapy and surgery..
Bone Marrow Transplant
A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces abnormal or missing cells in the bone marrow with healthy cells. The bone marrow is the tissue in the middle of certain bones. Normally, the bone marrow makes blood cells. There are different types of blood cells, and all of them are made from cells in the bone marrow called “hematopoietic stem cells.” If the bone marrow does not work normally, it can’t make the blood cells a person’s body needs. To treat this, a doctor can put healthy stem cells, called “donor” cells, into the bone marrow. The donor cells can then grow into normal blood cells. A bone marrow transplant is also called a “hematopoietic stem cell transplant.”
A bone marrow transplant also called a stem cell transplant, is a treatment for some types of cancer. For example, you might have one if you have leukaemia, multiple myeloma, or some types of lymphoma. Doctors also treat some blood diseases with stem cell transplants. In the past, a stem cell transplant was more commonly called a bone marrow transplant because the stem cells were collected from the bone marrow. Today, stem cells are usually collected from the blood, instead of the bone marrow. For this reason, they are now often called stem cell transplants.
Haematological malignancies are cancers that mainly affect the blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. These cancers are either called leukaemia, lymphoma or myeloma, based on the type of blood cell that has been affected. The cells involved in haematological cancers are directly connected to the immune system, so having this type of cancer will affect your immune system.
Thoracic Cancers include lung cancers, tracheal tumours, thymic malignancies, lung carcinoid tumours. These types of cancers are usually seen in smokers. These cancers are usually characterised by symptoms such as chest pain, persistent cough, night sweats, unexplained weight loss, or fever. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are the primary treatment types for tumours; depending on the type of tumour and if it has spread.
Gastrointestinal (GI) oncology includes managing and treating cancers that affect the gastrointestinal tract and other organs that are contained within the digestive system, including the oesophagus, pancreas, stomach, colon, rectum, anus, liver, biliary system, and small intestine. Common types of GI cancers include Colon and Rectal Cancer, Liver Cancer, Stomach cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, and Oesophageal Cancer.
These are treated with surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of these.
Gynaecological Oncology is the medicinal field which focuses on the cancers that occur in the reproductive parts. The most common types of gynaecological malignancies are cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial (uterus) cancer. There are other less common gynaecological malignancies including cancer of the vagina, cancer of the vulva, gestational trophoblastic tumours, and fallopian tube cancer. Occasionally skin cancers or sarcomas can also be found in the female genitalia.
Genitourinary malignancies include malignancies found in the urinary system and the male reproductive system. These include prostate cancer, kidney cancer, bladder cancer, testicular cancer and cancers of the penis.
The treatment plan is decided based on many factors such as the age of the patient, stage of cancer, patient's personal preference, etc. Treatment approaches include chemotherapy, personalised drug therapies, radiation therapy, surgical treatment or a combination of these.